Temperature, pH, alkalinity, total-N, total-P, K, Na, Ca and Mg levels were measured in groundwater at the Pickerel Lake and Ottawa Lake calcareous fens and the Cedarburg Bog patterned fen. The two calcareous fens were similar in all chemical characteristics. Alkalinity, pH and Mg were significantly lower in the patterned fen when compared to the calcareous fens, while the other chemical parameters were similar. Each of these southeastern Wisconsin fens supported Sarracenia purpurea (pitcher plant). When the characteristics of the groundwater of the areas that supported S. purpurea were compared with those of areas that did not support S. purpurea, it was evident that distribution of S. purpurea was not correlated with the measured groundwater characteristics. Eleocharis rostellata (spike rush) was dominant in the calcareous fens, while Rhynchospora alba (beak rush) was the dominant plant of the patterned fen. S. purpurea often occurred in association with various mosses and, in the two calcareous fens, usually grew near spring seeps.
Golembiewski, T.A. and F. Stearns. 1987. The distribution of Sarracenia purpurea (pitcher plant) in Southeastern Wisconsin fens: The influence of pH and nutrients. 20(1): 15-24.