The dominance of females over males in winter flocks is rare. In this paper, I report on female dominance over males in winter flocks of Purple Finches (Carpodacus purpureus). Females won nearly all observed intersexual encounters and also differed from males in their use of agonistic displays. Female dominance has been reported for other species in the genus Carpodacus, but reasons for the occurrence of female dominance in this genus are unknown.
Popp, J.W. 1987. Female dominance among Purple Finches (Carpodacus purpureus) in winter flocks. 20(2): 13-16.