Precipitation changes and urban growth are two factors altering the state of water quality. Changes in precipitation will alter the amount and timing of flows, and the corresponding sediment and nutrient dynamics. Meanwhile, densification associated with urban growth will create more impervious surfaces which will alter sediment and nutrient loadings. Land and water managers rely on models to develop possible future scenarios and devise management responses to these projected changes. We use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess potential changes in stream flow, sediment, and nutrient loads in two urbanizing watersheds in Northwest Oregon, USA. We evaluate the spatial patterns climate change and urban growth will have on water, sediment and nutrient yields. We identify critical source areas (CSAs) for each basin and investigate how implementation of vegetative filter strips (VFS) could ameliorate the effects of these changes. Our findings suggest that: 1) Water yield is tightly coupled to precipitation. 2) Large increases in wintertime precipitation provide enough sub-surface storage to increase summertime water yields despite a moderate decrease in summer precipitation. 3) Expansion of urban areas increases surface runoff and has mixed effects on sediment and nutrients. 4) Implementation of VFS reduces pollutant loads helping overall watershed health. This research demonstrates the usefulness of SWAT in facilitating informed land and water management decisions.
Psaris, Mike and Chang, Heejun
"Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change, Urbanization, and Filter Strips on Water Quality Using SWAT,"
International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research:
2, Article 1.
Available at: http://dc.uwm.edu/ijger/vol1/iss2/1