Date of Award

August 2017

Degree Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Nursing

First Advisor

Christine R. Kovach

Committee Members

Kim Litwack, Julie Ellis, Scott Strath

Keywords

Muscle Mechanography, Muscle Outcomes, Older Adults, Psychosocial Factors, Sarcopenia

Abstract

Objectives: To describe the muscle mass, strength, and function of older adults living in residential care apartment complexes (RCACs) and examine the association between self-efficacy for exercise, depressive symptoms, social support and sarcopenia. The convergent validity of Muscle Mechanography (MM) when compared to the traditional muscle function and strength tests was also tested.

Design: Secondary data analysis of baseline data from a clinical trial.

Setting: One RCAC in the Midwestern United States.

Participants: Thirty-one older adults living in one RCAC.

Measurement: Muscle mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. Muscle function was evaluated by the Short Physical Performance Battery test, Timed Up and Go test, and MM. Grip strength was measured by a Jamar® hand dynamometer. Self-efficacy for exercise was measured by the Self-efficacy for Exercise Scale. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale. Social support was measured by the Lubben Social Network Scale.

Results: Participants had lower values of muscle mass, strength, and function compared to values obtained in previous research. A sex difference exists for muscle mass, strength, and function. The findings showed a trend for individuals with high self-efficacy, without depressive symptoms, and with strong social support to present greater muscle mass, strength, and function. The findings also demonstrated convergent validity across all the examined measures of muscle function and strength.

Conclusion: This study is only one of a few to describe the muscle outcomes and evaluate the relationship between selected cognitive and psychosocial factors and sarcopenia among older adults living in RCACs. The preliminary findings of this study warrant further investigation of an intervention aimed at maintaining or improving the muscle outcomes of RCAC residents. While the interpretation of findings should be presented with caution and replicated with other samples, this study may provide a new understanding about the muscle outcomes and the relationship between self-efficacy for exercise, depressive symptoms, and social support and sarcopenia. Improved understanding of muscle outcomes and the relationship between cognitive and psychosocial factors and sarcopenia is crucial. The findings also provided a new evidence about MM as a new technology to quantitively assess muscle function in older adults, potentially making this a valuable research tool.

Available for download on Saturday, August 31, 2019

Share

COinS