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The Cedarburg Bog and its surrounding uplands provided a rich smorgasbord of plants to fill the many needs of its earliest human inhabitants. A flora of the area and a list of plant species that were employed in some manner by the Native Americans would be almost identical. The species discussed in this paper had real or rumored values for a variety of Woodland tribes of the Upper Midwest and later for the settlers. Besides their medicinal value, many plants were sources of food, fiber, dyes, construction, and of a variety of “magical” or symbolic purposes. My intent is not to document the actual effectiveness or safety of the medicinal or food plants, but to present their historical perception as resources in a landscape empty of drugstores, grocery stores, hardware stores, and often, doctors.