The behavior of bird species toward a potential predator has been investigated in various studies in which a live or model predator has been presented to the subject(s). However, with the exception of a few reports of the responses of birds to imitated calls of different birds of prey (e.g., Miller, 1952), little work has been done on how a bird's behavior is influenced by the vocalizations of predators. The purpose of this study was to record the behavior of free-living Black-capped Chickadees (Parus atricapillus) when tape-recorded calls of predatory birds were played back to them.
Apel, K. 1978. Predator recognition through audition in the Black-capped Chickadee (Parus airicapillus). Field Station Bulletin 11(2): 7-14.