Corresponding Author

Heejun Chang


As urban areas continue to expand, sustainable urban water resource management has become an important issue in green and sustainable city planning. Using single-family residential (SFR) household survey, we identified the determinants of household summer daily water consumption from 2000 to 2005 in Portland, Oregon. The multiple regression results show that approximately 41% of variations in SFR water consumption is explained by average building size, household attitude to water conservation, community engagement of household, and presence of native plants in the garden. The multi-level modeling results show that household attitude to water conservation is an important predictor of SFR water consumption within and between neighborhoods, while household mean income is not a good predictor of water consumption at both levels. The findings suggest the roles of community program for efficient urban water resource management. Our results have important implications for sustainable urban water resource management and land use planning as they relate to water use behavior in urban areas.


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