Date of Award

May 2017

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Adel Nasiri

Committee Members

Thomas Jahns, Lingfang Wang, Robert Cuzner, Brian Armstrong


Energy Storage Systems, Li-ion Battery, Load Leveling, Uninterruptable Power Supply, UPS


Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) systems are usually considered as a backup power for electrical systems, providing emergency power when the main power source fails. UPS systems ensure an uninterruptible, reliable and high quality electrical power for systems with critical loads in which a continuous and reliable power supply is a vital requirement.

A novel UPS system topology, DC line-interactive UPS, has been introduced. The new proposed UPS system is based on the DC concept where the power flow in the system has DC characteristic. The new DC UPS system has several advantageous with respect to the on-line 3-phase UPS which is extensively used in industry, such as lower size, cost and weight due to replacing the three-phase dual converter in the on-line UPS system with a single stage single phase DC/DC converter and thus higher efficiency is expected.

The proposed system will also provide load leveling feature for the main AC/DC rectifier which has not been offered by conventional AC UPS systems. It applies load power smoothing to reduce the rating of the incoming AC line and consequently reduce the installation cost and time. Moreover, the new UPS technology improves the medical imaging system up-time, reliability, efficiency, and cost, and is applicable to several imaging modalities such as CT, MR and X-ray as well.

A comprehensive investigation on different energy storage systems was conducted and couple of most promising Li-ion cell chemistries, LFP and NCA types, were chosen for further aggressive tests. A battery pack based on the LFP cells with monitoring system was developed to be used with the DC UPS testbed.

The performance of the DC UPS has also been investigated. The mathematical models of the system are extracted while loaded with constant power load (CPL) and constant voltage load (CVL) during all four modes of operation. Transfer functions of required outputs versus inputs were extracted and their related stability region based on the Routh-Hurwitz stability criteria were found.

The AC/DC rectifier was controlled independently due to the system configuration. Two different control techniques were proposed to control the DC/DC converter. A linear dual-loop control (DLC) scheme and a nonlinear robust control, a constant frequency sliding mode control (CFSMC) were investigated.

The DLC performance was convincing, however the controller has a limited stability region due to the linearization process and negative incremental impedance characteristics of the CPL which challenges the stability of the system.

A constant switching frequency SMC was also developed based on the DC UPS system and the performance of the system were presented during different operational modes. Transients during mode transfers were simulated and results were depicted. The controller performances met the control goals of the system. The voltage drop during mode transitions, was less than 2% of the rated output voltage.

Finally, the experimental results were presented. The high current discharge tests on each selected Li-ion cell were performed and results presented. A testbed was developed to verify the DC UPS system concept. The test results were presented and verified the proposed concept.