Date of Award

August 2018

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Ilya Avdeev

Committee Members

Ben Church, Anoop Dhingra, Konstantin Sobolev, Deyang Qu


Equivalent Circuit Model, Failure, HPPC, Lithium Ion, Parameter, Simulation


In this digital age, energy storage technologies become more sophisticated and more widely used as we shift from traditional fossil fuel energy sources to renewable solutions. Specifically, consumer electronics devices and hybrid/electric vehicles demand better energy storage. Lithium-ion batteries have become a popular choice for meeting increased energy storage and power density needs. Like any energy solution, take for example the flammability of gasoline for automobiles, there are safety concerns surrounding the implications of failure. Although lithium-ion battery technology has existed for some time, the public interest in safety has become of higher concern with media stories reporting catastrophic cellular phone- and electric vehicle failures. Lithium-ion battery failure can be dangerously volatile. Because of this, battery electrochemical and thermal response is important to understand in order to improve safety when designing products that use lithium-ion chemistry. The implications of past and present understanding of multi-physics relationships inside a lithium-ion cell allow for the study of variables impacting cell response when designing new battery packs. Specifically, state-of-the-art design tools and models incorporate battery condition monitoring, charge balancing, safety checks, and thermal management by estimation of the state of charge, state of health, and internal electrochemical parameters. The parameters are well understood for healthy batteries and more recently for aging batteries, but not for physically damaged cells. Combining multi-physics and multi-scale modeling, a framework for isolating individual parameters to understand the impact of physical damage is developed in this work. The individual parameter isolated is the porosity of the separator, a critical component of the cell. This provides a powerful design tool for researchers and OEM engineers alike. This work is a partnership between a battery OEM (Johnson Controls, Inc.), a Computer Aided Engineering tool maker (ANSYS, Inc.), and a university laboratory (Advanced Manufacturing and Design Lab, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee). This work aims at bridging the gap between industry and academia by using a computer aided engineering (CAE) platform to focus battery design for safety.