Date of Award

May 2019

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Urban Education

First Advisor

Simone C.O. Conceição

Committee Members

Larry Martin, Liliana Mina, Dietmar Wolfram, Raymond Flemming


education, grades, Mobile, moderation, motivation, technology


Mobile technology is a tool learners rely on. The purpose of this study was to determine if mobile technology use moderates the relationship between intrinsic motivation and grades. Findings show that students with higher intrinsic motivation will have higher grades regardless of whether or not they use technology frequently for their course and regardless of whether or not they perceive mobile technology as valuable for learning in their course. There were positive correlations between students’ intrinsic motivation, and multiple facets of their intrinsic motivation, with their current and expected grades. Furthermore, frequency and value of mobile technology use, individually, were significant predictors of students’ current and final expected grades. This study importantly shows that increased frequency of mobile technology use adversely impacted expected grades, that learners who placed higher value of mobile technology in terms of learning for their course see a significant correlation to their expected grades, and that learners who perceived the importance of mobile technology as valuable, and used their devices more frequently, had higher predicted expected grades than those who did not. Implications for practice and recommendations for future research are detailed, in order to support these findings.

Higher education should be adapting to the opportunities and challenges presented by the ubiquity and pervasiveness of mobile technology. Faculty and administrators need to be in tune with ongoing research, and likely need to consider providing clear policies and expectations to learners. This includes how to best adapt mobile technology use for the classroom, and why that is important to the success of learners and faculty members. Learners clearly need structure and expectations for mobile device use for learning established. Various other factors and suggestions for instructors and administrators to consider when adopting learning approaches and practices for mobile technology into their learning environments are discussed.