Date of Award

May 2022

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Health Sciences

First Advisor

Barbara B Meyer

Committee Members

Barbara Meyer, Kyle Ebersole, Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Razia Azen, Mauricio Garnier-Villarreal, Leah Rouse


elite athletes, recovery, recovery activities, scale development


To optimize the performance and health of elite athletes, there has been an increase in the development of athlete monitoring systems to measure if athletes perceive themselves to be adequately recovered (i.e., counterbalancing the effects of stressors after a demanding activity). While these monitoring systems have been instrumental in describing athlete recovery states, little research has been conducted to establish why and how athletes engage in recovery behaviors or to identify barriers that prevent athletes from initiating the recovery process. As such, the purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an assessment that will allow practitioners and researchers to measure and monitor the recovery activities an athlete engages in to enhance performance, health, and well-being. This purpose was achieved through two studies. In Study 1, physical, psychological, and social recovery activity items were generated and content evaluated first by experts (N = 3) and second by elite athletes (N = 8). Results of Study 1 yielded the retention of 71 items. In Study 2, the recovery activity items were distributed to elite athletes (N = 265) and the factor structure was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Convergent validity and reliability of the assessment were also tested. Results of the CFA revealed a 56-item, 10-factor model. Convergent validity was supported, and reliability for each of the 10 subscales was good. Overall, the Assessment of Recovery Activities for Athletes (ARAA) provides practitioners and researchers with a valid and reliable instrument from which to monitor recovery activities engaged in by elite athletes.