Improved Wind Turbine Control Strategies for Maximizing Power Output and Minimizing Power Flicker
Date of Award
Master of Science
Ronald A. Perez
David Yu, John E. Seem
Bumpless Transfer, DFIG, Power Capture, Power Flicker, Robust Control, Wind Turbine
For reducing the cost of energy (COE) for wind power, controls techniques are important for enhancing energy yield, reducing structural load and improving power quality. This thesis presents the control strategies studies for wind turbine both from the perspectives of both maximizing power output and reducing power flicker and structural load,
First, a self-optimizing robust control scheme is developed with the objective of maximizing the power output of a variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) operated in Region 2. Wind power generation can be divided into two stages: conversion from aerodynamic power to rotor (mechanical) power and conversion from rotor power to the electrical (grid) power. In this work, the maximization of power generation is achieved by a two-loop control structure in which the power control for each stage has intrinsic synergy. The outer loop is an Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) based generator torque regulation via the rotor power feedback. The ESC can search for the optimal torque constant to maximize the rotor power without wind measurement or accurate knowledge of power map. The inner loop is a vector-control based scheme that can both regulate the generator torque requested by the ESC and also maximize the conversion from the rotor power to grid power. In particular, an ∞ controller is synthesized for maximizing, with performance specifications defined based upon the spectrum of the rotor power obtained by the ESC. Also, the controller is designed to be robust against the variations of some generator parameters. The proposed control strategy is validated via simulation study based on the synergy of several software packages including the TurbSim and FAST developed by NREL, Simulink and SimPowerSystems.
Then, a bumpless transfer scheme is proposed for inter-region controller switching scheme in order to reduce the power fluctuation and structural load under fluctuating wind conditions. This study considers the division of Region 2, Region 2.5 and Region 3 in the neighborhood of the rated wind speed. When wind, varies around the rated wind speed, the switching of control can lead to significant fluctuation in power and voltage supply, as well as structural loading. To smooth the switch and improve the tracking, two different bumpless transfer methods, Conditioning and Linear Quadratic techniques, are employed for different inter-region switching situations. The conditioning bumpless transfer approach adopted for switching between Region 2 maximum power capture controls to Region 2.5 rotor speed regulation via generator torque. For the switch between Region 2.5 and Region 3, the generator torque windup at rated value and pitch controller become online to limit the load of wind turbine. LQ technique is posed to reduce the discontinuity at the switch between torque controller and pitch controller by using an extra compensator. The flicker emission of the turbine during the switching is calculated to evaluate power fluctuation. The simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed scheme of inter-region switching, with significant reduction of power flicker as well as the damage equivalent load.
Chen, Quan, "Improved Wind Turbine Control Strategies for Maximizing Power Output and Minimizing Power Flicker" (2014). Theses and Dissertations. 454.