Date of Award

August 2014

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science



First Advisor

Marshall L. Dermer


Concept Learning Procedures, Fluency Training, Lay, Lie, Non-concurrent Multiple Baseline, Precision Teaching


Proper English is an important skill, but using "to lie" and "to lay" correctly appears challenging, as even college students misuse these verbs. The current project assessed a treatment package that included fluency-based software to train three participants to correctly use "to lie" and "to lay." For each verb several meanings were identified. Model sentences were constructed from the definitions to form basic units. Each basic unit included examples (correct sentences) and non-examples (incorrect sentences) for one of the meanings of each verb. Participants practiced with each basic unit until fluent and then completed a cumulative unit based on all previous units before moving to a new basic unit. To assess whether the treatment package was effective, the units were embedded in a non-concurrent multiple-baseline design replicated across participants. The treatment package appeared to improve verb use for two participants and paradoxically worsened verb use for one participant. These findings and the implications for further research were discussed.

Included in

Psychology Commons