Date of Award

August 2014

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Occupational Therapy

First Advisor

Kris A. Barnekow

Committee Members

Roger O. Smith, Cynthia Clough


Objective: This research was conducted to determine if an iPad training protocol using a teach-back strategy can feasibly be used in an educational setting and to determine if measures of use and technology perception are appropriate outcome measures. The studies were carried out in Wauwatosa, Wisconsin school district and involved two elementary level special education teachers. Utilizing single-subject methodology, two studies were carried out, including one study in which a subject received iPad training protocols and completed them independently and one study in which another subject received the same iPad training protocols combined with a teach-back strategy. The teach-back strategy is a health literacy technique that ensures the information was communicated effectively by asking the recipient to demonstrate their knowledge or skill.

Background: The prevalence of iPad use in schools is on the rise, and the increase in iPad use places a burden on teachers to learn how to utilize this technology effectively in order to achieve student gains. However, the iPad lacks a user guide and schools do not often provide adequate training for teachers to become proficient with this technology (Clark & Svanaes, 2012). An iPad protocol (Thompson, 2013) and a video modeling protocol (Sieglaff, 2013) were recently developed by graduate students and evaluated by educators with positive feedback. The intent of this research is to determine if the health literacy strategies utilized in the protocols can help to increase iPad use and positive attitudes towards the iPad in educators receiving the training.

Methods: Two elementary school educators were recruited by publicizing the iPad training within local elementary schools. Two subjects received the intervention through one of two studies, including the protocols with teach-back (TB) or the protocols without teach-back (NT). Data collection included a self-report technology questionnaire and iPad use reports, which were used to evaluate the effects of the protocol intervention on teachers' use and attitudes towards the iPad.

Results: The results from these single-subject design experiments suggested that both teachers who received the protocols positively increased their attitudes towards the iPad as demonstrated by increased scores from pre-intervention to post-intervention questionnaires. While the NT subject showed improvements in positive attitudes towards the iPad, they were not as significant as the gains shown by the TB subject. Both subjects reported that the protocols were helpful, reflecting the increase in scores following intervention across studies. In terms of use, reported daily use of the iPad over the course of the study only increased for subject TB, whereas it stayed level and ultimately decreased for subject NT. The studies did not yield conclusive or significant data in terms of video modeling use.

Conclusion: This study provided new information about using a training protocol when training teachers in video modeling with the iPad. Results indicated that the iPad and video modeling protocols are feasible and may be effective for use in an elementary education setting. Implementing training such as this may help to increase widespread iPad use in elementary school-based settings, which could lead to educational and functional gains for students.