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upper-limb rehabilitation, end-effector robot (iTbot), sliding mode control, reaching law, trajectory tracking


Geriatric disorders, strokes, spinal cord injuries, trauma, and workplace injuries are all prominent causes of upper limb disability. A two-degrees-of-freedom (DoFs) end-effector type robot, iTbot (intelligent therapeutic robot) was designed to provide upper limb rehabilitation therapy. The non-linear control of iTbot utilizing modified sliding mode control (SMC) is presented in this paper. The chattering produced by a conventional SMC is undesirable for this type of robotic application because it damages the mechanical structure and causes discomfort to the robot user. In contrast to conventional SMC, our proposed method reduces chattering and provides excellent dynamic tracking performance, allowing rapid convergence of the system trajectory to its equilibrium point. The performance of the developed robot and controller was evaluated by tracking trajectories corresponding to conventional passive arm movement exercises, including several joints. According to the results of experiment, the iTbot demonstrated the ability to follow the desired trajectories effectively.