The study follows the interpretative principles of Symbolic Interactionism and utilizes the Grounded Theory methodology. The first goal is to better understand the culture of architecture students and, particularly, the fascinating everyday life in the design studio. The second goal is to better understand architecture students as users of school buildings. The third goal is to explore the opportunities offered by Grounded Theory for the study of user culture and needs in regard to facility programming.
The Unit’s Edge: Exploring the Boundary between Public and Private Domains in Residential Settings for Older Persons
Mark A. Proffitt and Sherylyn H. Briller
This monograph explores the architectural boundary between the private domain in residential settings for older persons. In two retirement communities that encouraged personalization of resident entryways, quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed to compare different dwellings' edge treatments. This exploratory study addressed three major areas: 1) How are these edges used?, 2) What factors influence their use? and 3) To what extent did the use of these areas provide a means for resident self-expression and promote socialization with others? Key study findings result in a typology of edge uses and architectural design guidelines.
Jennifer A. Brush
The physical and social environments are important, but often not actualized, resources that can have a significant impact on the overall goals of nutritional intake and quality of life for people with dementia. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effect of improved lighting and enhanced table setting contrast on residents' meal consumption, social interaction, independence, and behaviors during meals in both assisted living and long-term care environments serving people with dementia. A three-day nutritional intake record, footcandle measures, the Meal Assistance Screening Tool, and the Communication Outcome Measure of Functional Independence were administered at baseline and post-test four weeks after the intervention. Twenty-five residents with dementia at two long term care facilities participated in the pilot study. After a lighting and contrast intervention, there were improvements in oral intake, communication, and functional abilities at both facilities.
Lyn Dally Geboy, Keith Diaz Moore, Gerald Weisman, Andrew Alden, Stacy Mleziva, Yavuz Taneli, and LaVonne Wroblewski
The Adult Day Center (ADC) is emerging as a new and important social institution and place type in the continuum of care environments. Nine case studies representing the range of ADC's currently operating in the United States are considered from a holistic, systemic perspective. Each case is presented in terms of place profile, program, physical setting and "the place in use." The results are not a matter of ADC "best practices" or "good/bad" ways of doing things, but rather a method of identifying characteristics and components that appear to contribute to making a positive difference in the experience of adult day care.
Dementia Day Care Design: Solutions from an Interprofessional Student Practicum: A Report of Research
Keith Diaz Moore, Deborah Bowers-Thomas, Angela Feser, Lee Hall, Anne Hanenberg, Myah Houghten, Nao Kamayama, Ching-Chih Ma, Cory Nelson, Amy Palmer, and Kimberly Ward
This monograph presents discrete design interventions developed by architecture, interior design and landscape architecture students in an inter-professional practicum. Students developed an understanding of the context of adult day care settings. Each student developed a discrete design intervention that could be utilized to enhance the therapeutic milieu of large open spaces endemic to adult day care. These interventions are categorized in one of three types: spatial organization, partitions and activity-oriented furniture.
Impact of Design Interventions in Nursing Home on Residents with Dementia, Their Families, and the Staff
Benyamin Schwarz, Habib Chaudhury, Ruth Brent, Teresa Cooney, Katie Dunne, and Jane Bostick
The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain design interventions in a nursing home affected resident with dementia outcomes, family involvement and interaction, and staff perceptions of care delivery. The study was conducted in a nursing home. The study site included dining and bathing facilities that serve smaller groups of residents. The new design promised to contrast the medical orientation of the existing nursing home with a more residential environment. The study design involved a two-group pretest-posttest comparison in which a sample of residents who eventually were relocated to the newly designed wing of the facility (Treatment Group) was compared with a sample that remained in the existing setting (Control Group). Findings and implication of this study provide new knowledge integrating the diverse professional aspects that contribute to a responsive long-term care setting.
Spaces and Traces of the Campus, University of Wisconsin--Milwaukee: An Assessment of Public Spaces of the UWM Campus with Design Recommendations
Sherry Ahrentzen and Nisha Fernando
As a class project, an analysis of how spaces enhanced or detracted from social interaction and aesthetic pleasures was completed in fall 1999 on the UWM Campus. Methods of assessment included design review and inventory, tracking people in places, interviews to determine viewpoints and visions. Design recommendations are made based on this information.
Andrew Alden, Gowri Betrabet, Keith Diaz Moore, and Gerald Weisman
This monograph contains 56 annotated bibliographies of literature published since 1990 on Adult Day Care facilities. The annotations are organized into five components - organization, staff, family, client, and physical setting - all of which form the dimensions of place for Adult Day Care. A matrix of the annotated bibliographies gives an overview of categories addressed in each publication.
John Marsden, Rebecca Meehan, and Margaret Calkins
"Therapeutic kitchens," also referred to as "country kitchen," "domestic kitchens," or "activity-based kitchens," have been cited as supportive spaces for residents with dementia. The purpose of this research is to identify physical features that are typically included in therapeutic kitchen design and to explore how these features support activities. Interviews and observation were conducted in the facilities with a therapeutic kitchen. A two-page questionnaire regarding therapeutic kitchens was distributed to 631 nursing homes and assisted living facilities throughout the United States. Results suggest that universal design principles, certain appliances and safety features, as well as homelike imagery, should be incorporated in therapeutic kitchen design.
Housing Needs in Milwaukee: A Summary of a Survey of Milwaukee Non-Profit Organizations Assessing Housing Needs, Development Efforts and Collaborative Possibilities
Lynne Dearborn-Karan and Sherry Ahrentzen
In the last few years there have been several dramatic changes at the state and city level regarding housing and welfare policy. This report documents the results of a survey of 90 non-profit organizations involved in housing and social service in Milwaukee. The survey was designed to assess the impacts of these policy changes on housing and organizational needs for non-profits, as well as to assess opportunities for university-community collaborations to address these needs.
Jeffrey A. Lackney
The Baltimore Quality Assessment project consists of the environmental quality assessment of five elementary schools in the City of Baltimore. Included in the study are two Baltimore public schools and three schools managed by a public/private partnership. Assessment areas included environmental quality, educational outcomes, facility management issues, and ownership perceptions.
Jeffrey A. Lackney, Peter J. Park, and Lawrence P. Witzling
Due to the Department of Facility Development's (DFD) concerns over the cost and quality of facilities, the DFD is interested in understanding why public buildings appear to actually cost more than private sector buildings. The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Architecture and Urban Planning (SARUP) responded to a DFD request proposal to study these concerns of the state building program. Specific examples and case studies are highlighted to illustrate how these Factors of Complexity may impact project duration and costs.
Janetta Mitchell McCoy
Based on the Procedure for Environmental Quality Assessment (PEQA), a comprehensive review of the literature on environmental assessment and environmental assessment instruments was conducted to determine the factors common to a definition of 'quality' in the work environment. More than 120 articles and books from the scientific and popular literature have been reviewed, critiqued and categorized.
Gary T. Moore, Carol Gee Lane, Ann B. Hill, Uriel Cohen, Tim McGinty, Frederick A. Jules, Heidi Marie Hollenbeck, and Lisa Lindberg Work
Design guide for planning, programming and designing different types of child care facilities. Includes 115 patterns for the policy, planning and design of large centers, neighborhood centers and family day-care homes. Based on current research information. Highly illustrated with photographs and sketches. Received an Award for Applied Research from Progressive Architecture, 1980, and received the 1980 UWM Foundation Research Award. Reprinted 1981, with new photographs in 1984, 1988 and in 1991. Revised edition 1994.
The thesis analyzes the incorporation of historic preservation with environmental practices in the rehabilitation of buildings. Case studies are presented which demonstrate the differences between a project that is designed according to historic preservation standards and a project concerned with environmental issues. The building are compared and recommendations given for an 'ideal' building renovation. Also included is a discussion on the current regulatory information for both rehabilitation approaches.
This project is based upon a case study of an existing urban environment in New York City. The history of this environment has been characterized by a succession of ethnic communities and the consequent creation of their distinct cultural landscapes. This suggests that important insights can be gleaned which are generalizable to the practice of urban design. These insights involve the creation of urban environments that are designed to accommodate change in cultural landscapes. In designing for such change, it is argued, new environments would be more likely to resist obsolescence.
Frances M. Carp, Arza Churchman, Min Kantrowitz, Gerald Weisman, and Habib Chaudhury
This monograph is based upon a workshop sponsored by the Institute on Aging and Environment at the 1994 EDRA Conference. San Antonio is the home of the first public housing facility specifically designed for older persons and the authors took the opportunity to reflect on the substantive and methodological issues that can be learned from Victoria Plaza. Frances Carp, who conducted the original longitudinal study, presents reflections on the early fray into Post Occupancy Evaluation and the lessons applicable today. Min Kantrowitz and Gerald Weisman present their comments and conclusions.
Educational Facilities: The Impact and Role of the Physical Environment of the School on Teaching, Learning and Educational Outcomes
Jeffrey A. Lackney
The quality of the educational environment is rapidly diminishing due to the plethora of social and economic problems plaguing urban communities. Due to this crisis, the physical infrastructure of school systems is being virtually ignored. The author addresses the impact of physical infrastructures on education and the impact of the school building on student achievement. Finally, the author synthesizes and builds upon existing models developed within several disciplines to direct further applied research on educational environments.
The Costs of Facility Development: A Comparative Analysis of Public and Private Sector Facility Development Processes and Costs
Jeffrey A. Lackney, Peter Park, and Lawrence P. Witzling
Due to the concerns of public officials over the cost and quality of facilities, interest in understanding why public university buildings appear to cost more than private sector buildings is high. This monograph responds to these concerns by comparing cost, quality and time factors of selected public and private sector facilities in the State of Wisconsin to determine if private sector project development is less expensive than public sector project development, and if so, why.
Early Childhood Physical Environment Observation Schedules and Rating Scales: Preliminary Scales for the Measurement of the Physical Environment of Child Care Centers and Related Environments
Gary T. Moore
This packet of schedules, scales, and procedures is intended for the systematic assessment of the quality of the physical environment of child care centers and related early childhood environments. Already in use in several places in North America, these instruments are reissued for research purposes only.
Gary T. Moore and Jeffrey A. Lackney
This handbook examines the relationship between school buildings and educational performance. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter 2 presents findings from empirical studies that have examined the building/performance issue. Research has demonstrated that the physical setting has both direct and mediated effects on prosocial and achievement outcomes. Chapter 3 presents an ecological model that accounts for physical, psychological and social environmental factors that affect student outcomes. The fourth chapter offers an analysis based on a review of empirical research, architectural literature and educational reform literature to inductively develop a set of 27 design patterns. Two patterns based on environment-behavior research are highlighted--small schools and well-defined activity pockets. Chapter 5 discusses implications from the educational reform literature. The complete set of 27 patterns is presented in the sixth chapter. Chapter 7 presents an example that uses patterns to create a prototypical design for a new type of educational facility. The final chapter focuses on the earlier stages of the facility development process, those of feasibility and planning. A reconceptualization of an existing educational facility planning model is offered. A total of 42 figures and 1 table are included.
Peter J. Park
Poorly managed growth creates major problems such as inefficient transportation patterns, excessive infrastructure costs and reduced productivity in the workplace. The Growth Management Institute worked with graduate students in the Master of Urban Planning program to develop a document which analyzes impacts of growth management techniques from other regions and assesses their applicability in Wisconsin. The document includes recommendations for southeastern Wisconsin communities which were studied in the course.
Mark A. Proffitt and Chen-Jui Yang
This monograph is the result of a study at the Alexian Village of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, a continuing care retirement community. It shows how the quality of its Health Center residents' lives were improved through manipulation of the physical environment. This monograph set out to achieve four major goals: 1) to show the relationships between organizational, social, and environmental factors; 2) to demonstrate the role of the physical environment as a therapeutic tool; 3) to demonstrate the importance of the preparatory process in creating a facility for older persons; 4) to demonstrate the rewards of ongoing analysis and evaluation.
Lawrence P. Witzling, Herb Childress, and Jeffery A. Lackney
As current research literature on workplace information grows exponentially, it often serves to hinder the larger goal of integrating our efforts into the creation of good workplaces. This monograph argues for a positive model of what the workplace should be, a set of goals, and criteria that can guide the innumerable decisions which go into the creation or remodeling of workplaces.
Mylinda Barisas, Margaret Calkins, Habib Chaudhury, Dannette Johansen, and Mark Proffitt
This monograph reviews current literature published since 1986 about people with dementia, therapeutic goals for this population, and the social, organizational, and physical environments in which they live. This volume is a continuation of annotations of literature published prior to 1989 which follows the same conceptual framework.
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