Corresponding Author

Stacey Brown-Amilian


This paper examines a triple threat for residents of two counties in the St. Louis metropolitan area. Previous environmental justice research has focused on demographics and toxic facilities. This research builds upon those assessments by incorporating hospital discharge data and demographics as well as three different types of pollution sources. Air pollution monitors were unavailable to use during the time period of 2009-2011, therefore proxy measures of pollution in the form of major roadways, industrial land use parcels, and toxic facility information from the EPA Toxic Release Inventory are utilized. This study integrates both spatial coincidence and proximity analysis methods and geostatistical techniques to account for spatial autocorrelation present in the data. Findings indicate that there is not a triple threat occurring, but rather a double burden with residents in poverty having higher risk for respiratory hospitalizations.



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